When American-born English socialite Nancy Astor entered the House of Commons on 1 December 1919, she became the first female MP in British history vĩ đại take a seat in parliament.
She was elected vĩ đại Parliament for Plymouth Sutton in November 1919, replacing her husband who had previously been the MP. Astor was elected following a by-election on 15 November 1919, although she had vĩ đại wait until 28 November for the results vĩ đại be announced, where it turned out she received more votes than thở the Labour and Liberal candidates combined. She entered the House of Commons on 1 December 1919 vĩ đại take her oath, sponsored by Prime Minister David Lloyd George and Lord President of the Council and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour.
Who was Nancy Astor?
Nancy Witcher Langhorne was born in Danville, Virginia in 1879, the eighth of eleven children born vĩ đại railroad businessman Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and his wife Nancy Witcher Keene. The first years of her life were impoverished, as her father struggled vĩ đại make his operations profitable following the abolition of slavery and the destruction of the American Civil War. Yet, by the time she reached her teenage years Nancy's father had become a wealthy businessman, making a fortune in construction, rail and tobacco and the family moved vĩ đại an estate, Mirador, in Albemarle County, Virginia.
In the 1890s Nancy and her sister Irene were enrolled in a finishing school in Thủ đô New York City where they were taught etiquette in preparation for entering high society. It was there that Nancy met her first husband, socialite Robert Gould Shaw II. The pair married on 27 October 1897 in Thủ đô New York when Nancy was 18 and in August 1898 they welcomed the birth of their son, Robert Gould Shaw III (called Bobby). However, the marriage was unhappy and the couple divorced in 1903. Around the same time Nancy’s mother died, ví Nancy moved back vĩ đại Mirador vĩ đại try and help lập cập her father’s household, but this proved unsuccessful.
After falling in love with England following a tour she took there, Nancy’s father suggested she move there permanently as it made her ví happy and in 1905 Nancy, her son and younger sister Phyllis moved vĩ đại England.
Witty, beautiful, glamorous, clever, fashionable, generous – Nancy became known amongst the aristocracy upon arrival in England and moved in high social circles. She soon caught the eye of Waldorf Astor – the son of Viscount Astor, owner of The Independent newspaper – and within six months the couple were married. The couple were well-matched; both were American expatriates with similar temperaments and in a strange coincidence were of the same age, born on the same day 19 May 1879. After the marriage the Astors moved into Cliveden, a lavish Buckinghamshire estate (a wedding gift from Waldorf’s father), and Nancy became a prominent hostess amongst the English elite.
The couple had five children – four boys: William Waldorf Astor II, Francis David Langhorne Astor, Michael Langhorne Astor and John Jacob Astor VII – and one girl: Nancy Phyllis Louise Astor.
A political couple
Through his wife, Waldorf Astor developed an interest in social reform. Encouraged by Nancy vĩ đại launch a career in politics, Waldorf was defeated in an initial attempt vĩ đại win election vĩ đại the House of Commons in the January 1910 general election. However, he won election as a Unionist for the borough of Plymouth in the December 1910 general election. Nancy too had political interests; through her many social connections she had become involved in a political circle called ‘Milner’s Kindergarten’, a group considered liberal at the time, which advocated unity and equality among English-speaking people and a continuance or expansion of British imperialism.
Waldorf enjoyed a promising political career for some years and in 1918, when his constituency was dissolved, became MP for Plymouth Sutton, a position he held until 1919. After his father’s death in October 1919, Waldorf succeeded vĩ đại his father’s peerage, inheriting the title 2nd Viscount Astor (making Nancy ‘Viscountess Astor’) and automatically becoming a thành viên of the House of Lords. Consequently he had vĩ đại relinquish his seat of Plymouth Sutton in the House of Commons, triggering a by-election.
With Waldorf having vĩ đại move ‘upstairs’ vĩ đại the House of Lords, his wife decided vĩ đại contest the vacant Parliamentary seat as the previous year had seen the 1918 Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act passed, which allowed women vĩ đại become MPs. Nancy stood as a Unionist candidate (now the Conservative Party), although many had reservations, including the Unionist Party Chairman Sir George Younger, who said:
‘...the worst of it is, the woman is sure vĩ đại get in.’
Nancy was at her best during electioneering. Her natural wit and charm endeared her vĩ đại voters of all classes, although she was hampered in the popular chiến dịch for her known opposition vĩ đại alcohol consumption and ignorance of current political issues. Her informal style baffled yet amused the British public and by rallying the supporters of the current government, moderating her prohibition views and using women’s meetings vĩ đại gain the tư vấn of female voters, Nancy won the election, beating her main rival Liberal Isaac Foot (father of Michael Foot, who went on vĩ đại lead the Labour party). Interestingly, after World War I Plymouth Sutton had a majority of women voters.
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The result was announced on 28 November 1919 and she took up her seat in the House on 1 December as a Unionist Member of Parliament.
Not the first woman elected
Although Nancy was the first woman vĩ đại take her seat in the House of Commons, she was not the first elected. That was achieved in 1918 by Constance Markievicz, an Irish Republican who was detained in Holloway Prison at the time and, as a thành viên of Sinn Fein, disqualified herself by refusing vĩ đại take the oath.
A master of repartee, Nancy Astor needed vĩ đại have all her wits about her vĩ đại survive in the male dominated arena of politics. She gained attention as someone who did not follow the rules – for example, when David Lloyd George was called vĩ đại swear her in he phối off before the others and was pulled back and scolded by Nancy. On another occasion, her first day in the House of Commons, she was called vĩ đại order for chatting with a fellow House thành viên, not realising she was who was causing the commotion.
Nancy quickly became known for her outspoken views of specific issues, including advocating women’s rights and stricter restrictions on alcohol. Yet, despite claiming vĩ đại be an ardent feminist, suffrage campaigners were initially dismayed that the first female MP had never had ties vĩ đại their movement.
On 24 February 1920, Nancy stood alone amongst an audience of over 500, mostly hostile, male MPs vĩ đại deliver her maiden speech. In her speech she referred vĩ đại the fact that some women over the age of 30 could now vote in Britain: ‘You must remember that women have got a vote now and we mean vĩ đại use it, and use it wisely’ and also spoke about the perils of drinking, emphasising the damage it caused vĩ đại women and children, as well as the economic cost vĩ đại the country, and appealing for stricter restrictions on the drinking hours that had come into effect during the First World War.
During the initial years of her political career Nancy supported lowering the voting age of women vĩ đại 21 (an Act that was later passed in 1928) and proposed raising the age of alcohol vĩ đại 18 (it was phối at 14 in 1901), an Act that was passed in a 1923 Private Member’s Bill and which remains vĩ đại this day.
Nancy spent almost two years as the only woman in the House of Commons against a backdrop of sexism and, often, outright resentment. Active both inside and outside of government she supported welfare reforms and equal voting rights and was also supportive of other female MPs, regardless of political các buổi tiệc nhỏ. During this period Nancy also advocated the development and expansion of nursery schools for children’s education and she worked vĩ đại recruit women into the civil service, the police force, education reform and the House of Lords. She was also concerned about the treatment of juvenile victims of crime.
In the 1930s both Nancy and her husband Waldorf objected vĩ đại engaging in the Second World War. They and several friends and associates backed Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement policy in reducing the threat of entering into a war with Germany and became known as the ‘Cliveden set’, although there is some dispute over the set's allegiances vĩ đại fascism and Nazi Germany. Nevertheless, Nancy became critical of Chamberlain’s leadership in the early stages of the war and voted against the Government in May 1940, helping Winston Churchill vĩ đại become Prime Minister. It was around this time that Nancy started vĩ đại lose popularity among her fellow MPs, as she became increasingly erratic and made a number of long-winded speeches, including one in which she said that a Catholic conspiracy was subverting the foreign office and another disastrous one in which she stated that alcohol was the reason England’s national cricket team was defeated by the Australians.
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Despite her opposition vĩ đại the war, Nancy contributed vĩ đại the war effort by running a hospital for Canadian soldiers. The Astors were also hugely generous with their wealth, giving buildings, land and money vĩ đại the thành phố of Plymouth, including 3 Elliot Terrace, which became the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Plymouth (now accommodation for official visitors).
Nancy won seven elections between 1919 and 1935 and was MP for Plymouth Sutton for 26 years until the 1945 election when she decided not vĩ đại stand on the advice of both the Conservative Party (who felt she had become a political liability) and her husband who refused vĩ đại tư vấn her running for office again. In the same year that she retired, 24 women became MPs and took their seats in parliament. Nancy’s retirement put increasing strain upon her marriage vĩ đại Waldorf and before long the couple were living apart. They were separated for a number of years, before reconciling shortly before Waldorf’s death in September 1952.
Waldorf Astor was appointed Lord Mayor of Plymouth in 1939, despite not being a thành viên of the thành phố council – an honour which had been given only once before vĩ đại Sir Francis Drake. Representing Plymouth as an MP and as Lady Mayoress during the Second World War, Nancy Astor’s life and work were closely identified with the thành phố and in 1959 she was made an honorary Freeman of the City of Plymouth. The same year Viscountess Astor performed the launching ceremony for HMS Plymouth, the first ship for 250 years vĩ đại bear the name, and presented a diamond and sapphire necklace vĩ đại be worn by Lady Mayoress of Plymouth. She was made CH (Order of the Companions of Honour) in 1937.